中平卓馬《Circulation: Date, Place, Events》

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中平卓馬70年代最關鍵的攝影論展演

1971年的巴黎,世界各地的年輕藝術家們都聚集到第七屆的巴黎雙年展來,包括了年輕的中平卓馬。中平在雙年展現場做了一件大膽探問「何謂表現?」的實驗性作品——《Circulation: Date, Place, Events》(循環 : 日期、場所、事件)——他隨意拍攝被「日期」和「空間」所框限的現實世界,並立即在現實中將他們重新「循環」起來,這樣持續了大約一個星期。這也是他首次將自己的攝影方法論具體化地展現。

在中平任意拍攝他所遇到的任何事物的照片裡,有在巴黎街道熙來攘往的人和車、各種海報和印刷品、雙年展裡的裝置作品、中平自己持續增生的創作展示、地下鐵的通道、電報訊息、電視畫面、旅館早餐和房間裡正在晾乾的內衣褲——中平展示著他在巴黎每日生活的影像軌跡。隨著照片與日俱增,多到展覽牆面已經無法容納更多影像的時候,中平索性就把照片撒在地板上。然而,由於展覽主辦方的干預,中平不得不在雙年展結束的前兩天就把展示的照片全都撤除。儘管是這種結局,回到日本後中平在一篇短文裡仍寫道:「現在,由於這項創作的成果,我才終於感受到我所說的和做的是一致的。」中平將這個經歷視為具體化自己攝影論的重要嘗試。

對中平來說,1971年在巴黎發表的《Circulation: Date, Place, Events》體現了他的攝影思維邁向劇烈變化、且具實踐基礎的一步。亦即,這項創作對於中平從1970年的《為了該有的語言》(此書收錄他在1960年代中期拍攝的照片)到1973年出版的影像評論集《為何是植物圖鑑》中重新批判檢視自己早期作品並試圖轉變其攝影論的過程而言,是一個關鍵的轉捩點。

《Circulation: Date, Place, Events》是每天透過相機捕捉的物質現實碎片所組成的,並藉圖片構成的攝影裝置來復原現實。而做為一本攝影書,本書則嘗試重新體現中平卓馬在1971年的巴黎所形成的重要觀點,更勝於簡單地重現原本的裝置。1973年,中平決定告別過去並否定自己之前的攝影,他將他絕大部份的底片和照片都燒毀了。幸運的是——或者也可能是中平刻意留下——《Circulation: Date, Place, Events》被保留了下來,大約有逾980張35厘米的黑白底片以及48張僅存的照片,已確認是中平當年在巴黎雙年展展出的《Circulation: Date, Place, Events》作品。

本書的編輯構成主要包含確認出現在中平展覽中的照片,以及一些尚未確認、但以曝光的日期時間和在那些僅存的影像相關資料所顯示在裝置展示期間的樣子來進行判斷的照片。本書的照片皆由日本攝影家金村修以中平卓馬的原始底片並參照其創作的原樣來沖印製作,並收錄中平卓馬寫於1971至72年的三篇論述,和一篇日本評論家八角聡仁的文章。

In 1971, photographer Takuma Nakahira participated in the Seventh Paris Biennale for emerging artists from around the world. In his experimental project "Circulation: Date, Place, Events", Nakahira challenged himself to photograph his surroundings and in the same day exhibit the results for a duration of approximately one week. Indiscriminately documenting everything he encountered — the Parisian streets, the people and cars that came and went there, all manner of posters and printed matter, the installations in the Biennale including the constantly evolving display of his own work, the underground passageways of the subway, news wire reports transmitted by teletype machines, the constant flow of images on television, his room service breakfast in his hotel room and drying underwear — Nakahira exhibited the photographic traces of his daily experiences of Paris within each day. As the photographs proliferated day after day, the exhibition wall could no longer contain them, and Nakahira spread them onto the floor.

Encountering difficulties with the event organizers, Nakahira tore down the exhibited photographs two days before the end of the Biennale. Despite reaching such an extreme conclusion, in an essay written upon his return to Japan, Nakahira would write, “Now, as a result of this project, I can feel that the things that I say and the things that do are beginning to agree with one another for the first time.” Nakahira saw this experience as a crucial attempt to materialize his own photographic methodology.For Nakahira, Circulation: Date, Place, Events of 1971 (the contents of which only a small portion have been known before now), represented a practice-based step towards radically changing his own photography. Thus, the project demonstrated a vital turning point situated in the passage between 1970’s For a Language to Come (a collection of his photography since the mid-1960s), and the 1973 collection of media criticism, Why an Illustrated Botanical Dictionary? where he would declare his intent to change his methodology in the title essay after critically reassessing his earlier work.

Circulation: Date, Place, Events consisted of the daily process of capturing fragments of material reality with the camera and returning these back to reality as photographic prints made on the spot in the form of a photographic site-specific installation. As a photobook, this volume seeks to newly engage Takuma Nakahira’s critical perspective as produced in Paris, 1971, rather than simply recreating the original installation. In 1973, seeking to make break with the past and reject his own photography up to that point, Nakahira would burn up most of his negatives and prints. Fortunately, or perhaps intentionally un-burned, the negatives corresponding to Circulation: Date, Place, Events have been preserved. There are approximately nine hundred and eighty cut 35 mm negatives (B&W) as well as forty-eight remaining prints confirmed to be part of the photographs taken and exhibited by Takuma Nakahira for his submission, Circulation: Date, Place, Events at the Seventh Paris Biennale. The editing and composition of this volume, which compiles together mainly photographs confirmed to have been exhibited and those which have not been confirmed, is based on analysis of their date and time of exposure as well as the state of their display during the installation found in these existing photographic and related materials. The prints made from the original negatives for the printing of this volume were produced by photographer Osamu Kanemura in consideration of the original aims of the work.

《サーキュレーション : 日付、場所、行為》 | 中平卓馬 | 14.5 x 20.8 cm | 320頁 | 2012年 | OSIRIS出版 | 平裝 | 日文&英文

Circulation: Date, Place, Events | by Nakahira Takuma | 14.5 x 20.8 cm | 320 pages | 2012 | Published by OSIRIS, Japan | softcover | Japanese & English

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